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Connecticut toxicology stingrays module


Conditions stings marine creatures


Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2014 May;239(5):601-9. doi: 10.1177/1535370214523704. Epub 2014 Mar 25.

Characterization of inflammatory response induced by Potamotrygon motoro stingray venom in mice.

Kimura LF1, Prezotto-Neto JP, Antoniazzi MM, Jared SG, Santoro ML, Barbaro KC.

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Freshwater stingray accidents cause intense pain followed by edema, erythema, and necrosis formation. Treatment for stingray envenomation is based on administration of analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory drugs. This report evaluated the local inflammatory reaction-including edema formation, leukocyte recruitment, release of inflammatory mediators, and histopathological changes-after the intraplantar injection of Potamotrygon motoro stingray venom in mice. Edema was observed as soon as 15 min after venom injection, peaking at 30 min, and lasted up to 48 h. In addition, P. motoro venom increased neutrophil counts in the site of injection, at all time periods and venom doses analyzed. Increased eosinophil and lymphocyte counts were detected mainly at 24 h. Moreover, monocytes/macrophages were observed in large amounts at 24 and 48 h. Microscopically, the venom induced leukocyte migration to the injured tissue, edema, mast cell degranulation, angiogenesis, and epidermal damage. Inflammatory mediator release (IL-6, MCP-1 and KC) was detected as soon as 1 h after venom injection, and it increased significantly at 4 h. At 24 h, the venom induced only the production of MCP-1. These results show that this stingray venom evokes a complex inflammatory reaction, with rapid and persistent edema formation, leukocyte recruitment, and release of cytokines and chemokines


Chin J Nat Med. 2013 Sep;11(5):500-5. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(13)60091-6.

Pharmacological investigation and spectral characterization of bioactive compounds from crude extracts of sting ray, Dasyatis jenkinsii (Annandale, 1909).

Ravitchandirane V1, Yogamoorthi A2, Thangaraj M3.

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Dasyatis jenkinsii is used traditionally to treat inflammatory complaints and arthritis by the fisherman community and local population. The present study was designed to scientifically investigate the traditional practice through the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and organ toxicity studies and characterization of bioactive compounds of crude extracts of D. jenkinsii.


Solvent extract of homogenized fresh fish was prepared using petroleum ether and diethyl ether. The chemical and spectral analyses of extracts were carried out using FT-IR and GC-MS. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities were assessed by hot plate, tail clip, and carrageenan induced rat paw edema methods. The organ toxicity of each extract was assessed on brain, liver, and kidney of mice.


The IR spectrum indicated the presence of aromatic and aliphatic compounds. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 1-(4-carboxy)phenylnona-2, 5-diene and 3-hydroxymono-glyceryl hydrogen phthalate in the petroleum ether extract and carboxyl serine, dihydrotryptophan, and indolyl carboxylic acid in the diethyl ether extract. Both extracts showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in all the methods tested. The vital organs of the test animals were not affected by the crude extracts significantly.


The presence of biologically active compounds in the crude extracts with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties justifies the traditional knowledge and paves the way for isolation of these compounds for further experimentation.

Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved


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